woodwind instrument. The rackett had a double reed and a
cylindrical shape. The interesting pattern of bored parallel circular channels
with their oblique placement of finger holes made playing this
instrument a bit
difficult. It required the use of both fingertips and middle joints of the
finger to cover the holes. It was constructed of wood or ivory and is now
Rabab: also spelled ribab, rbab, rebab. The rabab has many forms depending on the
country it is played in but it represents stringed
instruments of the Islamic
countries. Generally they are played with a
bow while held upright. The shape of
the soundboard changes by geography.
Rallentando, rall: (Ita) Gradually
slower. Synonymous with
Range: The gamut of
pitches, from low to high, which a singer may perform.
Rapide: (Ita) Rapidly.
of the major scale.
Derived from Rabab of Ancient
Islamic Asian countries. It was a pear shaped, three-string instruments
with a short narrow neck and an open peg box.
Recital: A performance by one or more
work usually found in an opera or
which mimics the patterns of speech, in order to advance the story.
Recorder: an important
instrument of the
Baroque era. It was very
popular prior to the transverse flute. Recorders can play a range from
ensemble. Other types are
treble recorder and
descant recorder. The recorder, being a simple
flute, experienced a
revival after 1919 due to the efforts of
Red Notes: In
notes that were coloured red on the page in order to distinguish
notes. They were also
used to show differences in a cantus firmus from
Reed Organ: A reed
differs due to the sound being made by blown reeds rather than
flue pipes. Refer to Harmonium.
Reed Pipe: A type of pipe on an
organ. Generally, the
organ pipes fall into two
categories, flue pipes or reed pipes. Reed pipes create their sound similar to
the way the Clarinet
works. A thin metal tongue simulates a metal reed vibrating
against metal or wood shallot. Air is forced around the housing. Resonation of
the sound depends on the lumen size and shape where the air is allowed to
Refrain: A short
section of repeated
material which occurs at the end of each
Regal: Another type of
organ. Named so due to regal pipes creating their sound. Regal
pipes do not have resonators. The regal is small, somewhat portable and was used
between the 15th and the 18th centuries.
Relative major and minor scales:
which have the same key signature.
"Rebirth." The era from the mid-15th century to the end of the 16th
century. The music was characterized by the use of freer
forms, and a
progression from modes toward
Repeat: The repetition of a
section or a
composition as indicated by particular signs.
The most common of which is a pair of lines, one thick and the other thin, with
two, or sometime four dots. The dots are placed to the left of the thinner line
if an 'end repeat' or to the right of the thinner line if a 'begin repeat'.
We've had a question about Repeats from Pat in the USA that falls
beyond the scope of this dictionary, if anyone can give an answer
I'd be happy to pass it on.
|In the piece of
music in question:
|Intro with a
with 1st and 2nd endings.
Section 2 with 1st
and 2nd endings.
DS sign as the next 3rd
section begins also
with 1st and 2nd endings. We also had another 4th
section with only one
ending and a
DS Sign to return to the
DS which was at the end of the
Fine and the beginning of the third
|Pat's questions are
in reference to the
|When we reached
DC we returned to the intro.
Should we repeat the intro as we did the first time?
Do we also take all endings?
First and second on the
Or do we take 2nd endings only on the
Requiem: A version
of the Mass performed to
commemorate the dead. The
Kyrie, Gradual and Tract,
changing of a dissonant
pitch, usually by stepwise or
motion, so that it becomes consonant
Resonance: Reinforcement and
intensification of sound by vibrations.
Rest: A symbol used to denote silence.
Rhapsody: A free style instrumental piece
characterized by dramatic changes in mood.
Rhythm: The term
which denotes the organization of sound in time; the temporal quality of sound.
Riff: A type of
ostinato or short
musical idea of two to four bars
which is repeated throughout a
composition. It is often heard in
(Ita) A reinforced
Risoluto: (Ita) Resolute.
rit: (Ita) Gradually slower. Synonymous with rallentando.
Ritenuto: (Ita) Immediate reduction in
percussion instruments, a
sticking technique consisting of a rapid succession of
Romantic Era: The
period from roughly 1827-1900, characterized by freer
more elaborate works, and an increased attention to emotional
themes within the
Root: the most
note of a
chord, often the
usually contains the other members of the
chord in its
The note upon which a
Root position: The
arrangement of a
chord in which the
is in the lowest voice.
Round: Like the canon, a song in which
two or more parts having the same melody, starting at
different points. The parts may be repeated as desired.
Rubato: (Ita) The term used to denote
flexibility of tempo to assist in achieving expressiveness.
drums, the basic sticking
Run: A rapid
Rustico: (Ita) Pastoral,