Variation: The manipulation of a
the use of
rhythmic, and harmonic changes.
Late-Renaissance group of
in Venice whose style included
textures and the foundations of
Vibraphone/Vibraharp: A percussive
that looks similar to the
Xylophone. It is
made of two rows of metal bars fashioned similar to a
keyboard. The player
strikes the bars with dampened sticks. Below the bars hang vertical tubes with
resonators containing electrically driven metal discs. The prolonged vibration
creates the vibrato quality of its sounds, thus the name.
Vibrato: Repeated fluctuation of
bowed chordophone, equivalent to the
fiddle. The Vielle is from France and is
Vihuela: The three members of this family:
- vihuela de arco
- vihuela de penola
-played with a quill.
- vihuela de mano
-plucked with fingers.
By the 16th century, Italians called it viola
de mano. This instrument was most popular in the
Renaissance period. Its
appearance is similar to a large Guitar. It sported an elaborate rosette. Its peghead is bent back and the pegs are inserted from the back. It has six courses
of double strings.
Viola: In the
Violin family, the
instrument, played under the chin.
Viola Alta: Four string
Violin tuned a
fifth lower than the
Violin and with the exact
proportions of the Violin.
Viola Bastarda: Viola de gamba sized as large as the
viola. It had five playing
strings and two drone strings.
Viola da Gamba: Often called
bass viol, it is a large, stringed
held between the legs.
Viola da Braccio: The
Viola played on the arm thus refers to several members of the
Viola D' Amore: The size of the
Viola, it is played on the arm or shoulder but has sympathetic
Violin: The master of the orchestra. Its impressive
versatility and wide expressive range make it an integral role in orchestral
music. It is made from European softwood spruce with its fine, even grain. Its
four strings are stretched across the hollow resonating wooden body. An
fingerboard over the neck is used to stop the strings. It is
played with a bow of horsehair and occasionally plucked as well. In the
instrument played under the chin.
A family of four-string instruments
originating during the 17th century, tuned
in fifths, and characterized by rounded backs and
shoulders, f-shaped sound holes, and deep middle
Violino Piccolo: A small
Violin carrying the higher sounds than the regular
Violin. It has a
clear, bright sound.
Violincino: Tuned an
octave below the
Viola, it carries the
bass of the
Violin family. It
stands up on the floor via an endpin and is supported by its player between the
Violone: This is the largest of the violin de gambas, having five or six strings. It had
and eventually was called the double bass viol.
Virginal: Similar to the
Harpsichord, its shape is rectangular
with metal strings transversing the length of the box. It was ornate with a
small keyboard and was set upon a tabletop for play. By 17th century Italy, it
was replaced with the wing shaped spinet.
Virtuoso: A brilliant, skilful performer.
Vivace: (Ita) Lively, brisk,
quick, and bright tempo.
Vivo: (Ita) Lively, bright.
Voice: The production
of sound from the vocal chords.
Voice Flute: See
Volti subito: Turn
[the page] quickly.
Votive: A chant or
honouring a particular saint, or the Virgin Mary.